the respiratory system-poultry anatomy and physiology

Respiratory System of Poultry:

The function of Respiratory Organ:
  • The respiratory system is involved in the absorption of oxygen, release of carbon dioxide
  • Release of heat (temperature regulation)
  • Detoxification of certain chemicals
  • Rapid adjustments of acid-base balance, and vocalization.

The respiratory system consists of:

  • Nasal cavity
  • Oropharynx ( Mouth and Pharynx)
  • Trachea
  • Syrinx
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs
  • Air sacs
the respiratory system
the respiratory system

Nasal Cavity:

The nose or nasal cavity occupies a triangular shaped space between the nares(opening of the nose) and the margin of the eye and within the beak. The epithelium of the nasal cavity is well syntactic with mucosal glands, mucus takes foreign material from being entry to the body by the respiratory system. The nasal glands – one on each side, are small. Their action is to supplement the action of the kidneys by reducing the electrolyte content of body fluids.
The oropharynx consists of the mouth and the pharynx. The avian respiratory tract starts with The glottis closes when feed is passing down the throat so that the feed does not enter the lungs.
In medium sized adults- measures between 15 and 18 cm. It has 108 to 125 cartilaginous rings each one complete and lapping its neighbor. This arrangement prevents the trachea from collapsing or compressing but agrees on elongation and flexion. The trachea is lined with mucociliary epithelium a special type of epithelium where the hair-like cilia move foreign materials e.g. dust up and out of the trachea. Numerous mucous secreting glands are also found in the tracheal lining.
The syrinx is the vocal organ of the fowl. It is situated at the caudal end of the trachea and is suspended within the clavicular air sac. The walls of the syrinx are two thin, vibrating membranes named the tympanic membranes. The bird creates sound by causing these membranes to vibrate.
Bronchi: The trachea divides at the syrinx into two bronchi (primary or microbranch). 
On entering the lungs, the primary bronchi divide to form four series of secondary bronchi and these, in turn, divide again to form numerous tertiary bronchi or parabronchia. The secondary and tertiary bronchi are lined with squamous epithelium and not the ciliated epithelium of the initial bronchi. The tertiary bronchi are arranged in layers. They are not blind ending but join others that in turn lead back to the secondary and primary bronchi i.e. the bronchial system is continuous
The avian lung of poultry is a flattened structure that occupies the roof of the cranial or head end of the coelom. Fowls do not have a diaphragm separating the peritoneal from the pericardial/pleural (thoracic) cavities. The bright pink lungs are formed at the end of the bronchi and their terminal structures are named the air vesicles or sacs. Unlike other species, the avian lungs have very little elasticity
Air Sac: These are:
  1. Single clavicular air sac
  2. Pairs of cervical air sacs
  3. Pair of cranial thoracic air sacs
  4. Pairs of caudal thoracic air sacs
  5. Pair of abdominal air sacs
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