female reproductive system

Female Reproductive System:

The female reproductive system consists:
  1. The ovary and
  2. The accompanying oviduct.
Female reproductive system
Female reproductive system
   NOTE: The female embryo chicken has two sets of reproductive organs, only one of these, the left survives and reaches maturity to produce eggs
The ovary is a cluster of developing yolks or ovam and is located midway between the neck and the tail of the bird, attached to the back. The ovary is completely formed when pullet chicks hatch, but it is very small until the chicks reach sexual maturity. At hatch, pullet chicks have tens of thousands of potential eggs (i.e., ova) which theoretically could be laid. Primary follicles – follicles that have not yet commenced to grow. Growing follicles. Mature follicles – follicles ready or almost so for released. Discharged follicles – where the yolk has just been free.  Atretic follicles – those from which the yolk has been clear some time ago

Oviduct :

– Tube like organ
– Approximately 70 cm long
– Glandular
– Well supplied with blood vessel
Oviduct consists of different segments. These segments are:
  1. Infundibulum
  2. Magnum or ampulla
  3. Isthmus
  4. Uterus or shell gland
  5. Vagina
  6. Cloaca

Infundibulum funnel-shaped

  1.  funnel shaped
  2.  lies adjacent to the ovary.
  3. 9 centimeters long in the laying hen
  4. The yolk remains in the infundibulum for 15 minutes
  5. Fertilization takes place.

Magnum or ampulla

  1. The magnum is the longest segment
  2. up to 40 centimeters long.
  3.  add approximately 40% of the albumen to the develop
  4. There are four different types of albumen in the normal egg:
  5. Bird generate only dense albumen,
  6. As the egg moves along the oviduct, water is added thus making liquid albumen.
Isthmus:
  1. Approximately 12 centimeters long
  2. Adding approximately 20% of the albumen and two shell membranes to the egg
  3. The inner shell membrane – laid down first
  4. The outer shell membrane – laid down last and about three times the thickness of the inner membrane
  5. The isthmus takes approximately 75 minutes to carry out its tasks.
  6. The air cell in the new-laid egg is approximately 1.5 centimeters in diameter and approximately 0.5 centimeters deep.
  7. The isthmus also lays down the base for the shell by forming the first crystals of calcium carbonate on the outer shell membrane.
Uterus (shell gland):
  1. The uterus is a relatively short bulbous gland up to 12 centimeters in length.
  2. Egg remains in the uterus for 18-20 hours
  3.  The shell is largely made up of calcium carbonate.
  4.  The hen mobilizes 47% of her body calcium from her bones to make the egg shell
  5.  Pigment deposition, if there is any, is also done in the shell gland.
    Vagina:
  6. The last part of the oviduct is the vagina which is about 4-5(10.16-12.70cm) inches long
  7.  The vagina is made of muscle which helps push the egg out of the hen’s body.
  8.  The bloom or cuticle is also added to the egg in the vagina prior to oviposition
Sperm Host Gland:

• Near the junction of the vagina and the shell gland, there are deep glands known as sperm host glands.
• They can store sperm for lengthy periods of time (10 days to 2 weeks).
• When an egg is laid, some of this sperm can be squeezed out of the glands.
• The sperm remains viable at body temperature.

female reproductive system

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