Endocrine system

Endocrine system of Poultry:

The endocrine system of poultry consists of a number of organs (glands) located in different areas of the body and which play an important part in the proper functioning of the animal.

The organs produce special compounds called hormones, which, in turn, target particular systems or organs, and the way that they function.

These glands are called endocrine glands because they do not have an opening to discharge their secretions but discharge them directly into the blood stream. They are then carried to their target systems and organs to carry out their task.

 The glands are:

  1. Pituitary gland or hypophysis
  2. Hypothalamus
  3. Adrenal gland
  4. Thyroid gland
  5. Parathyroid glands
  6. Ultimobranchial bodies
  7. Pineal body
  8. Ilets of Langerhans’s
  9. Gonads

Male reproductive system:

male reproductive system (endocrine)
male reproductive system (endocrine)

The male reproductive organs of poultry in the domestic fowl consist of two testes, each with a deferent duct that leads from the testes to the cloaca. Fowls do not have a penis found in other animals.

The testes are bean size bodies located against the backbone at the front of the kidney. Their size is not fixed and they become larger when the birds are actively mating. The left testes are often larger than the right.

On the inside of each as they are located in the body cavity is a small, flattened area that is believed to correspond to the epididymis of mammals. The duct starts at this flattened area.

The deferent duct enters a small pimple like structure in the cloaca. This structure represents the mammalian penis. The deferent duct is fully narrow at first but widens as it approaches the cloaca.

Male reproductive system  consists of
  1. Two testes
  2. Ductus  deference/ Vas deference
  3. Rudimentary penis

The male chicken possesses two testes, located along the chicken’s back, near the top of the kidneys. The testes are elliptical shaped and light yellow in color.

Ductus Deferens:

Each ductus deferens (duct which transport sperm from the testes) opens into a small bump or papilla. The ductus deferens is also the main area for sperm storage in male chickens.


  • The rudimentary copulatory organ
  • Located on the median ventral portion of one of the transverses fold of the cloaca

At the time of mating, sperm are introduced by the papillae into the oviduct in the cloacal wall of the female


Functions of androgen include:

  • Directing sexual activity and the production of sperm,
  • Controlling secondary sexual characteristics of the male, and
  • Influencing social rank or “peck order.”
  • Secondary sexual characteristics include comb growth, crowing or gobbling, spur development, and male feathering
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