Digestive system of poultry
The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal along which the food passes after eating to where the residual wastes are eliminated from the body, together with the liver and the pancreas. The digestive system is responsible for the ingestion of food, it breaks down into its constituent nutrients and their absorption into the blood stream, and the elimination of wastes from that process. The liver produces bile and is associated with the metabolism of nutrients together with a number of other functions. The main function of the pancreas is the production of digestive enzymes and special compounds called hormones.
The muscular system provides the mechanical activity for the animal in the form of mobility of the different parts of the skeleton or it’s appendages, the movement of materials along tubular organs e.g. the alimentary canal, air passages and blood vessels, and the pumping of the blood through the circulatory system by the heart.
Muscles are structured from special muscle cells in the form of fibers that have the ability to contract or shorten. When they relax the muscle lengthens.
There are three types of muscle found in the animal body. These are:
- Involuntary muscles found in the walls of the alimentary canal, blood vessels, air passages and other tubular structures. These muscles are beyond the control of the will and are called involuntary muscles. Because the fibers of these muscles do not carry transverse striation or stripes they are said to be unstriped or unstriated.
- Cardiac muscle of the heart. This too is involuntary muscle but is striated and is structured differently to other muscle. It is nucleated, contains many Purkinje Fibres and forms a syncytium with many nuclei but no differentiation of the protoplasm into cells.
- The striated or striped, voluntary muscles of the body that move the various parts of the skeleton or appendages. These consist of very minute thread-like muscle fibers in bundles enclosed by sheaths of fibrous tissue.