circulatory system,excretory system,nervous system and immune system of poultry

The circulatory system

The circulatory system consists of a number of organs and an associated transport system. These into the heart, the blood vessels, the spleen, the bone marrow, the blood and the lymph vessels. The blood and vascular system develops very early in the life of the embryo and is responsible for the transport of the various essential compounds and other factors around the body, as well as the removal of the metabolic wastes that accumulate in the tissues from body activities to places of elimination.

Excretory system

The excretory system in the domestic fowl consists of the two kidneys.  Each with a ureter that bearing the urine produced by the kidneys to the cloaca where it leaves the body. The two kidneys of the domestic fowl, every generally with three lobes, are found immediately behind the lungs on each side of the vertebral column and closely associated with it. They are brownish in color and their consistency is like this that they are easily damaged during their removal.
The straight and narrow ureter is a tube that leaves the medial border of every kidney and opens into the cloaca adjacent to the deferent duct of the male or the oviduct of the female. The ureter connects to many funnel shaped structures from every lobe of the kidney. The excretory system of the domestic fowl is of valuable because of its function of eliminating metabolic wastes and the maintenance of the electrolyte and water balance.

Nervous system and important sensory organs

The nervous system and the important sensory organs play a key role in the day-to-day functioning of the animal. Nervous system integrates and controls the different functions of the body, while the sensory organs detect the various stimuli in the bird’s environment that it reacts to. The nervous systems consist of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
The sensory organs
The sensory organs receive the various stimuli from the bird’s environment. Depending on the mode of action of the stimuli, special endings on the nerves will take that stimulus.
The sensory organs include:
Eye(s) – for sight.
Ear(s) – for hearing and balance.
Olfactory organ – for the smell.
Taste buds – for taste.
Immune system
The immune system is a highly complex physiological system that is yet to be fully understood. The primary role of the immune system is to recognize foreign or “non-self” organisms or substances that have managed to enter the body and to initiate and manage the appropriate physiological responses to neutralize or eliminate them. The immune system behavior a variety of mechanisms to achieve this goal, including inactivation of biological agents, lysis (rupture) of foreign cells, agglutination (clumping) or precipitation of molecules or cells, or phagocytosis (engulfing and inactivating) of foreign agents.
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